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Salaat Simplified (Guide for New Muslims)

on . Posted in Salah

 
1.     A Muslim is required to perform daily obligatory Prayers (Salaat) five times as per the Prayer timings.
 
2.     This leaflet is meant to teach new Muslims how to perform their five daily Prayers.
 
3.     Before performing a Prayer, first you need to be in a state of physical (tangible) cleanliness and non-physical (intangible) cleanliness by performing Tahaara (Purification).
 
4.     When performing Tahaara, you remove any physical impurities and non-physical impurities. See the section on Tahaara for the method of removing both physical and non-physical impurities.
 
5.     Once you are purified from physical and non-physical impurities (i.e. in a state of Tahaara), you still need to perform Ablution (Wudhuu) in order to perform Prayer. See the section on Wudhuu for step-by-step instructions on how to perform Wudhuu.
 
6.     Once you have Wudhuu, you are now ready to perform Prayer. See the section on Prayer for step-by-step instructions on how to perform daily Prayers.
HOW TO PERFORM TAHAARA
Why Tahaara?
Allah commands Muslims to purify themselves from all types of impurities before performing certain acts of worship.
Tahaara in Islam is of two kinds:
1. Purification of “physical impurity" that is caused when a person passes urine or stool (also called Hadath L-Asghar) or is in contact with impurity such as urine, stool, blood, vomit, puke, manee, madhee and wadee.
2. Purification of "non-physical impurity” that is caused by sexual intercourse and wet dream (Janaaba), menstrual cycle (Heidh), post natal bleeding (Nifaas).
Allah (swt) says:
“Allah loves those who turn to Him constantly and He loves those who keep themselves pure and clean.” (Qur’an 2:222)
Prophet Muhammad (saw) said:
Tahaara is the basis of Faith" (Sahih Muslim and Bukhari)
 
Niyyah (Intention)
In Islam, all deeds are considered by their intentions, thus before making an Tahaara one needs to make an intention in the heart to take away the state of impurity from your body, clothes, the place intended for performing prayer for Allah's sake.
FOLLOW THE STEPS
 

 

 
Physical Impurities (Najasa)
Najasa’ is an Arabic term for all physical substances that Islam considers them as impurities that when in contact with the body, clothes or place where prayer is intended to be performed, must be removed first before performing prayer (Salaat). Najasa include the following substances:
ØUrine: whether from human or animals
ØStool: from human and animals except from animals that are eaten by humans
ØBlood: all types of blood except blood from cutting fish or meat
ØVomit
ØPuke: food or liquid that flows back from the stomach into mouth
ØManee: liquid that comes out during sexual intercourse or wet dream
ØMadhee: light clear liquid that comes out during sexual foreplay
ØWadee: light white liquid that comes out after urine
 
Removal of Najasa
Najasa on the body, clothes or place where prayer is intended to be performed, (or anything or anywhere for that matter) can be removed by simply washing off with water. It is not stipulated as to how many times it must be washed off, except in the case of the physical impurity of a dog (i.e. its saliva, urine and feces), where it must be washed seven times, one of which must be done with clean earth (sand or dust). For the rest of Najasa, they must be washed off with water only, and if some smell or stubborn stains remain after washing they may be ignored.
 
 
Non-Physical Impurities (Hadath L-Akbar)
Hadath L-Akbar' is an Arabic term that refers to the state of non-physical impurity (intangible uncleaness) that prevents a Muslim from offering prayers and other acts of worship until that state is removed. Hadath L-Akbar includes the following three states:
ØState of ‘Janaaba’- After a sexual intercourse or after semen emission whether the person is awake or asleep (wet dream)
ØState of ‘Heidh’- After the woman's menstrual cycle
ØState of ‘Nifaas' - After a period of woman's post natal bleeding (usually 40 days)
 
Removal of Hadath L-Akbar
Purifying oneself from the state of Hadath L-Akbar can be achieved by ritual bathing (Ghusul) which involves pouring clean water to the entire body. Ghusul is performed in order to validate: Salaat, Tawaf, Fasting, Touching and Reading the Qur’an, and Entering a Mosque.
Ghusul is needed in the following situations:
ØAfter sexual intercourse or after semen  emission whether the person is awake or  asleep (wet dream)
ØAfter woman’s menstrual cycle 
ØAfter period of woman’s post natal bleeding  
ØAfter a non-Muslim reverted to Islam 
ØWhen preparing a dead body of a Muslim for  funeral
ØWhen suspect having ritual impurity
ØEvery Friday
ØDuring the two Muslim Eids
ØBefore entering the state of ‘Ihram’ for Hajj or Umrah
 
How to Perform Ritual Bathing 
ØMake intention (Niyyah) in your heart
ØPassing urine
ØWash the private parts (from the navel to the knees) and any area that come in contact with ritual impurity.
ØSay Bismillah
ØPerform Wudhuu as done for prayer (refer to the Wudhuu section)
ØApplication of water thoroughly to the entire body 
·          Beginning with the upper parts of the  body before the lower parts 
·          Beginning with the right parts of the body before the left parts
·          Rub the surface of the body with hand while applying water
 
Toilet Etiquette
ØEnter the toilet with the left foot first and leave the toilet with the right foot first.
ØOne must not speak in the toilet.
ØOne must not take or read the Qur'an in the toilet.
ØOne must not pass urine while standing.
ØOne must avoid any physical impurities splashed onto the body or clothes. If this happens accidentally, then one must wash off the affected area thoroughly with water.
ØOne has to use the left hand for cleaning the private parts.  
 
HOW TO PERFORM WUDHUU
Why Wudhuu?
Performing Ablution (Wudhuu) before entering into prayer [Salaat) is commanded by Allah (swt) and His Prophet (saw).
Allah (swt) says:
"0 you who have believed, when you rise to [perform] Prayer, wash your faces and your forearms to the elbows and wipe over your heads and wash your feet to the ankles. And if you are in a state of janabah, then purify yourselves. But if you are ill or on a journey or one of you comes from the place of relieving himself or you have contacted women and do not find water, then seek clean earth and wipe over your faces and hands with it. Allah does not intend to make difficulty for you, but He intends to purify you and complete His favor upon you that you may be grateful.” [Qur’an 5:6]
Prophet Muhammad (saw) said:
“No Prayer is valid of whoever neglects Ablution.” [Sahib Bukhari and Sahih Muslim]
 
Niyyah (Intention)
In Islam, all deeds are considered by their intentions, thus before making an Ablution one needs to make an intention in the heart to take away the state of impurity from your body by performing Ablution for Allah's sake.
 

 

FOLLOW THE STEPS
 

 

Before start making the Ablution, say:
بسم الله
Bismillah
  
                                        Step 1                                          
Wash both hands up to the wrists three times. Make sure the water reaches all parts of the wrist, including between the fingers.
Step 2
Using your right hand, put a handful of water into your mouth and rinse it thoroughly and gurgle in as deep as possible. Do this three times.
Step 3
Again using the right hand, sniff water into your nostrils as far in as possible to clean them. Wipe any mucus away with the left hand, again three times.
Step 4
Using both hands, wash face three times, wiping from your forehead to your chin and extending your hands to cover your face from ear to ear.
Step 5
Wash your arm including the elbow three times starting with your right arm.
Step 6
Wash the left arm including the elbow three times, as you have done for the right arm.
 
Step 7
Wipe the head with a wet hand once from the front to the back.
Step 8
Wipe the inside of your ears using your wet fingers; at the same time wipe the back of the ear lobes with your thumbs.
 
 
Step 9
Wash the right foot including the ankle three times, passing water between the toes, and over the sole of the foot.
 
Step 10
Wash the left foot including the ankle three times, passing water between the toes and over the sole of the foot.
 
 
After finishing making the Ablution Say:
أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وأن محمداً رسول الله *
اللهم اجعلني من التوابين واجعلني من المتطهرين*
Ash’hadu an laa Ilaha Illa Llah wa anna Muhammadan rasuulu Llah
*Allahumma j’alni mina ttawwabyna wa j'alni mina lmutatahhirin.
Actions that Nullify Wudhuu
1.     An excretion of the private parts (urine, feces, gas and prostatic fluids).
2.   Sleep that removes consciousness.
3.     Loss of consciousness for any reason.
4.     To be in contact with the sexual organ or any other ritual impurity.
5.     Bleeding, vomiting and puking.
 
Tayammum
·   Tayammum (Dry Ablution) refers to the use of clean earth (sand or dust) to wipe out one’s face and hands in place of Ablution or purification of minor and major ritual impurities with the intention of preparing oneself to pray.
·     Tayammum is permitted in the Qur'an when one cannot find water. [Qur'an 4:43]
 
·   When performing Tayammum, one must begin with intention (Niyyah), then mention “Bismillah”, and finally strike clean soil with hands and wipe the face and hands up to the wrist.
HOW TO PERFORM SALAAT
Why Salaat?
Performing regular obligatory Prayers is the second pillar of Islam and has been commanded by Allah (swt) and His Prophet (saw).
Allah (swt) says:
“Recite, [O Muhammad], what has been revealed to you of the Book and establish Prayer. Indeed, Prayer prohibits immorality and wrongdoing, and the remembrance of Allah is greater. And Allah knows that which you do.” [Qur’an 29:45]
Prophet Muhammad (saw) said:
"Whoever doesn't pray is not a Believer.”
“What lies between a Believer and disbelief is renouncement of Prayer.”
[Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim]
 
Niyyah (Intention)
In Islam, all deeds are considered by their intentions, thus before entering state of Prayer one needs to make an intention in the heart the desire to pray in obedience to Allah (swt)
To perform Prayer, stand on a clean place facing the direction of Qibla ready to begin.
 
FOLLOW THE STEPS
Step 1: Preparation (lsti’daad)
Recite Iqamah’ (see Remark 1)
Recite ‘Tawjih’
Say: “Allah Akbar”
Say: “Audhu Billahi Mina Shaytani Rrajiym”
 
 
Step 2: Standing (Qiyaam)
Recite: سورة الفاتحة   
Surah ‘Fatiha’ (see Remark 1)
 
*Upon bowing say: “Allahu Akbar” 
  
Step 3: Bowing (Rukuu)
Say: “سبحان ربي العظيم3 مرات
“Subhana Rabbiya I’Adhim” 3 times
 
*Upon standing say: “Samia llahu liman hamidah”  
Step 4: Standing (Qiyaam)
Say: ربنا ولك الحمد”         
“Rabbana walaka I’Hamd”
 
*Upon prostrating say: “Allahu Akbar
Step 5: 1st Prostrating (Sujuud)
Say: “سبحان ربي الأعلى3 مرات
“Subhana Rabbiya I’Aala” 3 times
 
*Upon sitting say: “Allahu Akbar
Step 6: Sitting (Juluus)
Stay silently in this position for 3-4 seconds
 
*Upon prostrating say: “Allahu Akbar
Step 7: 2nd Prostrating (Sujuud)
Say: “سبحان ربي الأعلى3 مرات
“Subhana Rabbiya I’Aala” 3 times
 
*Upon standing say: “Allahu Akbar
 
Step 8: Standing (Qiyaam)
Recite: سورة الفاتحة   
Surah ‘Fatiha’ (see Remark 2)
 
*Upon bowing say: “Allahu Akbar”     
Step 9: Bowing (Rukuu)
Say: “سبحان ربي العظيم3 مرات
“Subhana Rabbiya I’Adhim” 3 times
 
*Upon standing say: “Samia llahu liman hamidah”  
Step 10: Standing (Qiyaam)
Say: ربنا ولك الحمد”         
“Rabbana walaka I’Hamd”
 
*Upon prostrating say: “Allahu Akbar
Step 11: 1st Prostrating (Sujuud)
Say: “سبحان ربي الأعلى3 مرات
“Subhana Rabbiya I’Aala” 3 times
 
 
*Upon sitting say: “Allahu Akbar
Step 12: Sitting (Juluus)
Stay silently in this position for 3-4 seconds
 
*Upon prostrating say: “Allahu Akbar
Step 13: 2nd Prostrating (Sujuud)
Say: “سبحان ربي الأعلى3 مرات
“Subhana Rabbiya I’Aala” 3 times
 
*Upon sitting say: “Allahu Akbar
Step 14: Sitting (Juluus)
Recite: التحيات‘Tahiyat’ (see Remarks 3 & 4)
 
Step 15: Saluting (Salaam)
Turn your face to the right
Say: السلام عليكم   Assalam Alaykum
 
Step 16: Saluting (Salaam)
Turn your face to the left
 
Say: ورحمة الله   Wa Rahmatu Llah
 
 
 
Steps for Performing Five Daily Obligatory Prayers
PRAYER
RAKAAT
STEPS
REMARKS
FAJR
2
 
 
 
1-16
1. ‘Iqamah’ in Step 1 is not required for females anytime, or for males when praying in congregation.
 
2. When praying individually (male and female), recite Surah ’nNas' (or any other small Surah) after Surah ‘Fatiha' in Step 2 and Surah ’lkhlas' (or any other small Surah) after Surah 'Fatiha’ in Step 8 for FAJR, MAGHRIB and ISHA Prayers.
 
3. Say:"Allahu Akbar” upon standing from Step 14 for DHUHR, ASR, MAGHRIB and ISHA Prayer.
 
4. For FAJR Prayer, recite ‘Tahiyat A’ and 'Tahiyat B’ in Step 14. For all other Prayers, recite 'Tahiyat A' in the first Sitting (Juluus) in Step 14 and ’Tahiyat A’ and 'Tahiyat B’ in the second Sitting (Juluus) in Step 14.
DHUHR
4
 
 
 
1-14, 2-16
ASR
4
 
 
 
1-14, 2-16
MAGHRIB
3
 
 
 
1-14, 8-16
ISHA
4
1-14, 2-16
 
 
Iqamah
الله أكبر (4 مرات)
أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله (مرتين)
أشهد أن محمداً رسول الله (مرتين)
حي على الصلاة (مرتين)
حي على الفلاح (مرتين)
قد قامت الصلاة (مرتين)
الله أكبر الله أكبر، لا إله إلا الله
Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar (2x)
Ash’hadu an laa illaha illa Llah (2):)
Ash’hadu anna Muharnmadan rasulu Llah (2x)
Hayya ala Salaa (2x)
Hayya aia Falah (2x)
Qad qaamati Salaa (2x)
Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar
Laa illaha illa Llah.
 
Tawjih
سبحانك اللهم وبحمدك * تبارك اسمك * وتعالى جدك * وجل ثنائك * ولا إله غيرك * إني وجهت وجهي * للذي فطر السموات والأرض * حنيفاً وما أنا من المشركين *
Subhanaka Llahumma wa bihamdika * Tabaaraka ismuka * Wa taala jadduka * Wa jalla thanaauka * Wala illaha ghayruka * Inni wajjahtu wajhiya * Lilladhiy fatara ssamaawati wal’ardhi * hanifan wa ma'ana mina l’mushrikin *
 
Tahiyat A
التحيات المباركات لله والصلوات الطيبات * السلام عليك أيها النبي ورحمة الله وبركاته * السلام علينا وعلى عباد الله الصالحين * أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وأشهد أن محمداً عبده ورسوله *
Attahiyaatu lmubarakaatu lillahi wa ssalawaatu wa ttayyibaatu * Assalamu alayka ayyuha nnabiyyu wa rahmatu llahi wa barakatuh * Assalamu alayna wa alaa ibadi llahi ssaalihin * Ash'hadu an la illaha illa Llah wa ash'hadu anna Muhammadan abduhu wa rasuluhu.
 
Tahiyat B
اللهم صل على محمد وعلى أل محمد * كما صليت على إبراهيم وعلى آل إبراهيم * وبارك على محمد وعلى آل محمد * كما باركت على إبراهيم وعلى آل إبراهيم * في العالمين إنك حميد مجيد*
 
Allahumma ssalli ala Muhammad wa alaa aali Muhammad * kama salayta ala Ibrahim wa alaa aali Ibrahim * wa barik alaa Muhammad wa alaa aali Muhammad * kama barakta alaa Ibrahim wa alaa aali Ibrahim * fil alamina innaka hamidunmajiid *
Surah ‘Fatiha’
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
الحمد لله رب العالمين * الرحمن الرحيم * مالك يوم الدين * إياك نعبد وإياك نستعين * اهدنا الصراط المستقيم * صراط الذين أنعمت عليهم غير المغضوب عليهم ولا الضالين *
Bismillahi Rrahmani Rrahim
Alhamdu lillahi Rabbi l’aalamin * Arrahmaani Rrahim * Maaliki yaumidiin *
Iyaaka na abudu wa iyaka nastaiin * Ihdina ssiratal mustaqiim * Ssiraata ladhina an’amta alaihim * Ghayri l’maghdhuubi alayhim wala dhaaliin *
 
Surah ‘Nnas’
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
قل أعوذ برب الناس * ملك في صدور الناس * من الجنة والناس *
الناس * إله الناس * من شر الوسواس الخناس * الذي يوسوس
Bismillahi Rrahmani Rrahim
Kul audhu birabbi nnaas * Maliki nnaas * Ilahi nnaas * Minsharri lwaswaasi lkhannaas * Alladhi yuwaswisu fi suduuri nnaas * Mina ljinnati wa nnaas *
 
 
Surah ‘Ikhlas’
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
قل هو الله أحد * الله الصمد * لم يلد ولم يولد * ولم يكن له كفواً أحد *
Bismillahi Rrahmani Rrahim
 
Kul huwa Llahu Ahad * Allahu Ssamad * Lam yalid walam yuulad * Walam yakun lahu kufuwan Ahad *
Supplication After Prayer
Ø       أستغفر الله x3
Ø       اللهم أنت السلام، ومنك السلام، تباركت يا ذا الجلال والإكرام
Ø       لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له، له الملك وله الحمد وهو على كل شيء قدير
Ø       اللهم صل وسلم وبارك على سيدنا محمد وعلى آل سيدنا محمد كما صليت وسلمت وباركت على سيدنا إبراهيم وعلى آل سيدنا إبراهيم في العالمين إنك حميد مجيد
Ø       ربنا تقبل منا صلاتنا وأجب لنا دعواتنا وإرحمنا إنك أنت أرحم الرحمين
Ø       ربنا آتنا في الدنيا حسنة وفي الآخرة حسنة وقنا عذاب النار
 
Ø  Astaghfiru Llah x3
Ø  Allahumma anta salaam, wa minka salaam, tabaarakta ya dha ljalali wa l-ikram
Ø  La ilaha illa Llah, wahdahu la sharika lahu, lahu lmulk, wa lahu lhamd, wa huwa ala kulli shayin qadyir.
Ø  Allahumma ssali wassalim wa baarik ala sayyidna Muhammad, wa ala aali sayyidna Muhammad, kama sallayta wa sallamta wa barrakta ala sayyidna Ibrahim, wa ala aali sayyidna Ibrahim, fil aalamina innaka hamidun majid
Ø  Rabbana taqabbal minna salaatana, wa ajib lana daawatana, wa arrhamna, innaka anta arrhamu rrahimin
Ø  Rabbana aatina fi dunya hassanat, wa fil akhirati hassanat, wa qina adhaaba naar
May continue supplications in your own language
Actions that Invalidate Prayer
1. Eating or drinking in Prayer.
2. Speaking about something unrelated to Prayer.
3. Smiling and laughing during Prayer.
4. Leaving out essential act or condition of Prayer such as ablution.
 
5. Making many unrelated motions.
 
For more information refer to relevant books on Prayer.
Reference:
 

Salaat Simplified (Guide for New Muslims), By Islamic Information Center IIC.

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