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[Prophet Abraham's (Ibrahim's) Progeny]
Before we continue with our discussion on sinners of the past, it is important to say a word or two about Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham). He is known as the father of all prophets, and the 'Khalil' of Allah, (i.e. one who is singled out for extra love by Allah). Prophet Ibrahim was born, about 4,000 years ago, in southern Iraq in a village on the outskirts of Kufah. At that time Iraq was under the rule of Nimrod. One day Abraham was having a confrontation with Nimrod concerning the question of Allah granting him sovereignty. The story is related in the Holy Qur'an in Su'rat Al-Baqarah (Chapter 2 Verse 258) as follows, "Have you not looked at him who disputed with lbrahim (Abraham) about his Lord (Allah), because Allah had given him a kingdom? When Ibrahim (Abraham) said (to him): 'My Lord (Allah) is He Who gives life and causes death.' He said: 'I give life and cause death.' Ibrahim (Abraham) said: 'Verily, Allah brings the sun from the east; then bring it you from the west.’ So the disbeliever was utterly defeated. And Allah guides not the people, who are Dha’limu'n (wrongdoers) (258)." (Study the Noble Qur'an — Word-for-Word).
أَلَمۡ تَرَ إِلَى ٱلَّذِى حَآجَّ إِبۡرَٲهِـۧمَ فِى رَبِّهِۦۤ أَنۡ ءَاتَٮٰهُ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡمُلۡكَ إِذۡ قَالَ إِبۡرَٲهِـۧمُ رَبِّىَ ٱلَّذِى يُحۡىِۦ وَيُمِيتُ قَالَ أَنَا۟ أُحۡىِۦ وَأُمِيتُۖ قَالَ إِبۡرَٲهِـۧمُ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَأۡتِى بِٱلشَّمۡسِ مِنَ ٱلۡمَشۡرِقِ فَأۡتِ بِہَا مِنَ ٱلۡمَغۡرِبِ فَبُهِتَ ٱلَّذِى كَفَرَۗ وَٱللَّهُ لَا يَہۡدِى ٱلۡقَوۡمَ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ (258)
Besides the Qur'an the story also occurs in the Jewish Book, Talmud - (refer to muhammad.net - Abraham confounds Nimrod). In the Talmudic version of the story, it says that the father of Abraham occupied the highest office in Nimrod's government. When Abraham denounced polytheism, preached the oneness of God and smashed the idols of the temple, his own father lodged a complaint against him before the king, which led to the dialogue mentioned in the above Verse of the Qur'an. When Abraham was asked if he smashed the idols, his reply was as given in Su'rat Al-Anbiya' (Chapter 21 Verses 63-66), "He answered, ‘Rather it wasthis great one (the largest idol) who has done it. So ask them (the idols), if they can speak!' (63). Thereupon they turned to their (inner) selves and said (to themselves), ‘Surely it is you who are the wrong-doers' (64).Then their minds were turned up-side down, and they said, ‘You know well that they do not speak‘ (65). Abraham said, ‘D0 you then worship, besides Allah, a thing that can neither benefit you nor hurt you?‘ (66)." (Study the Noble Qur'an — Word-for-Word).
قَالَ بَلۡ فَعَلَهُ ۥ ڪَبِيرُهُمۡ هَـٰذَا فَسۡـَٔلُوهُمۡ إِن ڪَانُواْ يَنطِقُونَ (63) فَرَجَعُوٓاْ إِلَىٰٓ أَنفُسِهِمۡ فَقَالُوٓاْ إِنَّكُمۡ أَنتُمُ ٱلظَّـٰلِمُونَ (64) ثُمَّ نُكِسُواْ عَلَىٰ رُءُوسِهِمۡ لَقَدۡ عَلِمۡتَ مَا هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ يَنطِقُونَ (65) قَالَ أَفَتَعۡبُدُونَ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ مَا لَا يَنفَعُڪُمۡ شَيۡـًٔ۬ا وَلَا يَضُرُّكُمۡ (66)
According to the Talmud, Abraham was interned in prison on the orders of Nimrod for ten days, after which the king ordered him to be burnt alive. This incident is revealed in Surat AI-Anbiya' (Chapter 21 Verse 69), "We (Allah) said: 'O fire, be you coolness and safety for Abraham’ (69)." (Study the Noble Qur'an — Word-for-Word).
قُلۡنَا يَـٰنَارُ كُونِى بَرۡدً۬ا وَسَلَـٰمًا عَلَىٰٓ إِبۡرَٲهِيمَ (69 (
Following this incident, Abraham left Iraq and travelled to the Arabian Peninsula, Palestine and then to Egypt, taking with him his wife Sara and his nephew Lot. Eventually, he returned to Palestine and settled there, while Lot settled-down south of the Dead Sea. Later-on in life, Prophet Abraham travelled with his second wife, Ha'jir, to Mecca with their son Ismail. Meanwhile, he used to travel to and fro Palestine and Mecca, leaving Ha'jir and Ismail in Mecca. According to Dr. Shauqi Abu Khalil, in his book, The Atlas of the Qur'an at page 61, Prophet Abraham eventually died in Palestine, (his country of refuge), and was buried in the city of Hebron.
Prophet lbrahim's progeny descended in two main branches. One of these, the children of Ismail, lived in Arabia. The Quraish and other Arabian tribes, who are also known as Adnaniyyun, belonged to this branch of lbrahim's line in which Prophet Muhammad was born. Even those Arabian tribes which were not related to him by blood identified themselves with Ibrahim, since they had been influenced in varying degrees by his religious teachings. The other branch, from Isaac (Is'haq), the son of his first wife, Sara, came the Jews. In this branch there arose a number of prophets, such as Jacob, Joseph, Moses, David, Solomon, John, and Jesus. Jacob (Ya'qub) who changed his name from Jacob to Israel had 12 sons, and the descendents of these 12 sons are known as the 12 Tribes of Israel. This branch of lbrahim's family is claimed to have given birth first to Judaism, and subsequently to Christianity; yet the reality remains that all the prophets were Muslims. We shall say more about the Children of Israel later.
Before I close this account on Prophet Ibrahim, I would like to quote Dr. Shauqi Abu Khalil again in his book, ‘Atlas of the Qur'an' page 63, regarding Prophet lbrahim's migration. He had this to say, (Quote): "lt is noteworthy to mention here that "Palestine was the land of exile for Ibrahim, his son ls‘haq and his grandson Ya'qub, a fact that is established in the Torah itself. They were strangers in Palestine, living among its native dwellers, the Al-Kan'aniyyin. This is particularly the case for the Children of Israel who were all born and raised in Harran. This stage for them ended when the family of Ya'qub migrated to Egypt, where they joined up with Yusuf. Then they became assimilated into the culture and environment of Egypt. (End of quote).
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The People of Lot
Besides A'ad and Thamud, the people of Lot are another example of people who were destroyed because of their refusal to accept Islam.
The land inhabited by the people of Lot lies between Iraq and Palestine. According to the Bible, its capital town was Sodom, which is situated either near the Dead Sea or presently lies submerged under it. However, the whole nation perished and we can find no traces of it. As we said earlier, the Prophet Lot was a nephew of Abraham who moved from Iraq to Syria, Palestine and then Egypt for a while. Thereafter, God bestowed prophethood upon him and assigned to him the mission of reforming his misguided people.
The people of Lot were not only shameless and corrupt, but were also a people who were deep in moral disgrace to such a degree that even the presence of a few righteous persons had become intolerable to them. When these people reached such a low extent in immorality, God decreed that they would be wiped out altogether, except for Lot and some members of his family. His wife, who was in support of those evil people, was doomed together with them. lt says in Su'rat Al-Ankabu't (Chapter 29 Verses 28—35), "And (remember) (Lut) Lot, when he said to his people: ‘you commit Al-fahisha (the worst sin), which none has preceded you in (committing) in the A'lami'n (in the world) (28). Verily, you practise sodomy with men, and rob the wayfarer (travellers!) And practise Almunkar (every kind of evil deed) in your meetings‘. But his people gave no answer except they said: ‘bring Allah's torment upon us if you are one of the truthful‘ (29). He said, My Lord! Give me victory over the people who are Mufsidu'n (corrupt) (30). And when Our messengers came to Ibrahim (Abraham) with the glad tidings they said: ‘Verily, we are going to destroy the people of this town; truly its people have been Dha‘limu'n (wrong-doers) (31). Ibrahim (Abraham) said: ‘but there is Lot in it.‘ They said: ‘we know better who is there. We will, verily, save him and his family except his wife; she will be of those who remain behind’ (32). And when Our messengers came to Lut (Lot), he was grieved because of them, and felt ashamed from his people's reaction. They said: ‘Have no fear, and do not grieve! Truly, we shall save you and your family except your wife; she will be of those who remain behind (33). Verily, We are about to bring down on the people of this town a great torment from the sky, because they have been rebellious (34). And indeed We have left thereof an evident Ayah (Sign), for a folk who understand‘ (35)." (Study the Noble (Qur'an - Word-for-Word).
وَلُوطًا إِذۡ قَالَ لِقَوۡمِهِۦۤ إِنَّڪُمۡ لَتَأۡتُونَ ٱلۡفَـٰحِشَةَ مَا سَبَقَڪُم بِہَا مِنۡ أَحَدٍ۬ مِّنَ ٱلۡعَـٰلَمِينَ (28) أَٮِٕنَّكُمۡ لَتَأۡتُونَ ٱلرِّجَالَ وَتَقۡطَعُونَ ٱلسَّبِيلَ وَتَأۡتُونَ فِى نَادِيكُمُ ٱلۡمُنڪَرَۖ فَمَا كَانَ جَوَابَ قَوۡمِهِۦۤ إِلَّآ أَن قَالُواْ ٱئۡتِنَا بِعَذَابِ ٱللَّهِ إِن ڪُنتَ مِنَ ٱلصَّـٰدِقِينَ (29) قَالَ رَبِّ ٱنصُرۡنِى عَلَى ٱلۡقَوۡمِ ٱلۡمُفۡسِدِينَ (30) وَلَمَّا جَآءَتۡ رُسُلُنَآ إِبۡرَٲهِيمَ بِٱلۡبُشۡرَىٰ قَالُوٓاْ إِنَّا مُهۡلِكُوٓاْ أَهۡلِ هَـٰذِهِ ٱلۡقَرۡيَةِۖ إِنَّ أَهۡلَهَا ڪَانُواْ ظَـٰلِمِينَ (31) قَالَ إِنَّ فِيهَا لُوطً۬اۚ قَالُواْ نَحۡنُ أَعۡلَمُ بِمَن فِيہَاۖ لَنُنَجِّيَنَّهُ ۥ وَأَهۡلَهُ ۥۤ إِلَّا ٱمۡرَأَتَهُ ۥ ڪَانَتۡ مِنَ ٱلۡغَـٰبِرِينَ (32) وَلَمَّآ أَن جَآءَتۡ رُسُلُنَا لُوطً۬ا سِىٓءَ بِہِمۡ وَضَاقَ بِهِمۡ ذَرۡعً۬ا وَقَالُواْ لَا تَخَفۡ وَلَا تَحۡزَنۡۖ إِنَّا مُنَجُّوكَ وَأَهۡلَكَ إِلَّا ٱمۡرَأَتَكَ ڪَانَتۡ مِنَ ٱلۡغَـٰبِرِينَ (33) إِنَّا مُنزِلُونَ عَلَىٰٓ أَهۡلِ هَـٰذِهِ ٱلۡقَرۡيَةِ رِجۡزً۬ا مِّنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ بِمَا كَانُواْ يَفۡسُقُونَ (34) وَلَقَد تَّرَڪۡنَا مِنۡهَآ ءَايَةَۢ بَيِّنَةً۬ لِّقَوۡمٍ۬ يَعۡقِلُونَ (35)
The Qur'an refers to sodomy, of which the people of Lot were most notorious, as the most hideous act. It also says in Su'rat Hijr (Chapter 15 Verses 73-75), ”So As-Sayhah (torment — awful cry) overtook them at the time of sunrise (73). And We turned the (towns of Sodom in Palestine) upside down, and rained down on them stones of baked clay (74). Surely, in this are signs for those who see (75)." (Study the Noble Qur'an — Word-for- Word).
فَأَخَذَتۡہُمُ ٱلصَّيۡحَةُ مُشۡرِقِينَ (73) فَجَعَلۡنَا عَـٰلِيَہَا سَافِلَهَا وَأَمۡطَرۡنَا عَلَيۡہِمۡ حِجَارَةً۬ مِّن سِجِّيلٍ (74) إِنَّ فِى ذَٲلِكَ لَأَيَـٰتٍ۬ لِّلۡمُتَوَسِّمِينَ (75)
It also says in the Holy Qur'an, Su'rat Al-Qamar (Chapter 54 Verses 33-34: "The people of Lut (Lot) belied the warnings (33). Verily, We sent against them a violent storm of stones, (which destroyed them all), except the family of Lut (Lot), them We saved in the last hour of the night (3-4)." (Study the Noble Qur'an —Word-for-Word).
كَذَّبَتۡ قَوۡمُ لُوطِۭ بِٱلنُّذُرِ (33) إِنَّآ أَرۡسَلۡنَا عَلَيۡہِمۡ حَاصِبًا إِلَّآ ءَالَ لُوطٍ۬ۖ نَّجَّيۡنَـٰهُم بِسَحَرٍ۬ (34)
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The People of Madyan
The people of Madyan were yet another people who degenerated from the right way of Islam to Kufr or blasphemy. These are reckoned to be descendants of Madyan, a son of the Prophet Abraham (Ibrahim) from his third wife, Qatura.
According to Sayyid Abul A'la Mawdudi in ‘Towards Understanding the Qur'an‘, Volume 3 page 53, (Quote): the territory of Madyan lay to the north-west of Hijaz and south of Palestine on the coast of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba; and part of the territory stretched to the northern border of the Sinai Peninsula. The Madyan towns were situated at the crossroads of the trade routes from Yemen through Mecca to Syria and from Iraq to Egypt. Long after Madyan was destroyed for their sins, the Arabs used to pass through territories which were full of the ruins of their monuments. (End of quote).
The people of Madyan suffered from two major ailments — polytheism and dishonesty in business. God the Almighty, then sent Prophet Shu'aib who devoted his efforts to purging them of those evils. It says in the Qur’an Su'rat A/-A’araf (Chapter 7 Verse 85), "And to the people of Madyan (Midian), (We sent) forth their brother Shu'aib. He said: ‘O my people! Worship Allah! You have no other ila'h (god) but Him. Verily, a clear proof (sign) from your Lord has come unto you. So give full measure and full weight and wrong not men in their things, and do not do mischief on the earth after it has been set in order. That will be better for you, if you are believers‘ (85)." (Study the Noble Qur'an - Word-for-Word).
وَإِلَىٰ مَدۡيَنَ أَخَاهُمۡ شُعَيۡبً۬اۗ قَالَ يَـٰقَوۡمِ ٱعۡبُدُواْ ٱللَّهَ مَا لَڪُم مِّنۡ إِلَـٰهٍ غَيۡرُهُ ۥۖ قَدۡ جَآءَتۡڪُم بَيِّنَةٌ۬ مِّن رَّبِّڪُمۡۖ فَأَوۡفُواْ ٱلۡڪَيۡلَ وَٱلۡمِيزَانَ وَلَا تَبۡخَسُواْ ٱلنَّاسَ أَشۡيَآءَهُمۡ وَلَا تُفۡسِدُواْ فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ بَعۡدَ إِصۡلَـٰحِهَاۚ ذَٲلِڪُمۡ خَيۡرٌ۬ لَّكُمۡ إِن ڪُنتُم مُّؤۡمِنِينَ (85(
It says in Verse 88 of the same Su'rat, "The chiefs of those who were arrogant among his people said: ‘We shall certainly drive you out, O! Shu'aib, and those who have believed with you from our town, or else you (all) shall return to our religion.’ He said: ‘Even though we hate it?‘ (88). (Study the Noble Qur'an —Word-for-Word).
قَالَ ٱلۡمَلَأُ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱسۡتَكۡبَرُواْ مِن قَوۡمِهِۦ لَنُخۡرِجَنَّكَ يَـٰشُعَيۡبُ وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ مَعَكَ مِن قَرۡيَتِنَآ أَوۡ لَتَعُودُنَّ فِى مِلَّتِنَاۚ قَالَ أَوَلَوۡ كُنَّا كَـٰرِهِينَ 88))
It goes on to say in Su'rat Al-A‘araf, Verses 90-93, ”The chiefs of those who disbelieved among his people said: ‘If you follow Shu'aib, be sure that you will be losers’ (90). So the earthquake seized them, and they lay (dead), prostrate in their homes (91). Those who belied Shu'aib, became as if they had never dwelt there (in their homes). Those who belied Shu'aib, were the losers (92). Then he (Shu'aib) turned on them, and said: ‘O my people! I have indeed conveyed my Lord's message unto you, and I have given you good advice. Then how can I sorrow for the disbelieving people's destruction? (93)." (Study the Noble Qur'an —Word-for-Word).
وَقَالَ ٱلۡمَلَأُ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مِن قَوۡمِهِۦ لَٮِٕنِ ٱتَّبَعۡتُمۡ شُعَيۡبًا إِنَّكُمۡ إِذً۬ا لَّخَـٰسِرُونَ (90) فَأَخَذَتۡہُمُ ٱلرَّجۡفَةُ فَأَصۡبَحُواْ فِى دَارِهِمۡ جَـٰثِمِينَ (91) ٱلَّذِينَ كَذَّبُواْ شُعَيۡبً۬ا كَأَن لَّمۡ يَغۡنَوۡاْ فِيهَاۚ ٱلَّذِينَ كَذَّبُواْ شُعَيۡبً۬ا كَانُواْ هُمُ ٱلۡخَـٰسِرِينَ (92)فَتَوَلَّىٰ عَنۡهُمۡ وَقَالَ يَـٰقَوۡمِ لَقَدۡ أَبۡلَغۡتُڪُمۡ رِسَـٰلَـٰتِ رَبِّى وَنَصَحۡتُ لَكُمۡۖ فَكَيۡفَ ءَاسَىٰ عَلَىٰ قَوۡمٍ۬ كَـٰفِرِينَ (93)
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The Pharaohs are also a people who violated the Laws of Islam and received a severe punishment from God. They lived in Egypt and regarded themselves as gods. While their people were happy and wealthy they oppressed the Children of Israel whom they kept as slaves. Moses’ parents were amongst the oppressed slaves.
When Moses was appointed prophet by God and was sent, together with his brother Aaron (Ha'ru'n), to liberate the Children of Israel from Pharaoh's oppression, the Pharaoh invited all his best sorcerers in town. Moses, by the will of God, exposed their tricks and proved them wrong. The sorcerers were convinced beyond doubt that what Moses did was genuine and what they saw was nothing less than a Divine Power. As a result, all Pharaoh's sorcerers fell down prostrate in adoration, saying, as given in Surah Al-A'araf (Chapter 7 Verses 121-122), "They said: ‘We believe in the Lord of the Alami'n (the worlds) (121). The Lord of (Mu'sa) Moses and (Ha'ru'n) Aaron (122)." (Study the Noble Qur'an — Word-for-Word).
قَالُوٓاْ ءَامَنَّا بِرَبِّ ٱلۡعَـٰلَمِينَ (121) رَبِّ مُوسَىٰ وَهَـٰرُونَ (122)
Pharaoh and his chiefs were bent on punishing Moses, the sorcerers and the Children of Israel. The Su'rat continues to say in Verses 126-127,”And you (Pharaoh) take vengeance on us only because we believed in the (Aya’t) signs of Our Lord when they reached us! Our Lord! Pour out on us patience and cause us to die as Muslims (126). The chiefs of the (Fir'aun) Pharaoh's people said: ‘Will you leave (Mu’sa) Moses and his people to spread mischief in the land, and to abandon you and your gods?‘ He said: ‘We will kill their sons, and let live their women, and we have indeed irresistible power over them‘(127)." (Study the Noble Qur'an — Word-for-Word).
وَمَا تَنقِمُ مِنَّآ إِلَّآ أَنۡ ءَامَنَّا بِـَٔايَـٰتِ رَبِّنَا لَمَّا جَآءَتۡنَاۚ رَبَّنَآ أَفۡرِغۡ عَلَيۡنَا صَبۡرً۬ا وَتَوَفَّنَا مُسۡلِمِينَ (126) وَقَالَ ٱلۡمَلَأُ مِن قَوۡمِ فِرۡعَوۡنَ أَتَذَرُ مُوسَىٰ وَقَوۡمَهُ ۥ لِيُفۡسِدُواْ فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَيَذَرَكَ وَءَالِهَتَكَۚ قَالَ سَنُقَتِّلُ أَبۡنَآءَهُمۡ وَنَسۡتَحۡىِۦ نِسَآءَهُمۡ وَإِنَّا فَوۡقَهُمۡ قَـٰهِرُونَ (127)
God, the Almighty, then punished Pharaoh and his people with years of drought and shortage of crops that they might receive admonition. They told Moses that whatever signs he brought, they would never believe in him. So God sent them wholesale death, locusts, lice, frogs and blood - signs openly self-explained; but they were steeped in arrogance, a people given to sin. Every time the penalty fell on them, they said as narrated in Su'rat Al-A'ara'f (Chapter 7 Verses 134-136), "And when the punishment fell on them they said: ‘O (Mu'sa) Moses! Invoke your Lord for us because of His promise to you. If you remove the punishment from us, we indeed shall believe in you, and we shall let the Children of Israel go with you (134). But when We removed the punishment from them to a fixed term, which they had to reach—behold! They broke their word! (135). So We took retribution from them. We drowned them in the sea, because they belied Our (Aya't) signs, and were heedless about them (136)." (Study the Noble Qur'an — Word-for Word).
وَلَمَّا وَقَعَ عَلَيۡهِمُ ٱلرِّجۡزُ قَالُواْ يَـٰمُوسَى ٱدۡعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ بِمَا عَهِدَ عِندَكَۖ لَٮِٕن كَشَفۡتَ عَنَّا ٱلرِّجۡزَ لَنُؤۡمِنَنَّ لَكَ وَلَنُرۡسِلَنَّ مَعَكَ بَنِىٓ إِسۡرَٲٓءِيلَ (134) فَلَمَّا ڪَشَفۡنَا عَنۡہُمُ ٱلرِّجۡزَ إِلَىٰٓ أَجَلٍ هُم بَـٰلِغُوهُ إِذَا هُمۡ يَنكُثُونَ (135)فَٱنتَقَمۡنَا مِنۡہُمۡ فَأَغۡرَقۡنَـٰهُمۡ فِى ٱلۡيَمِّ بِأَنَّہُمۡ كَذَّبُواْ بِـَٔايَـٰتِنَا وَڪَانُواْ عَنۡہَا غَـٰفِلِينَ (136)
It also says in Su'rat Yunus (Jonah) (Chapter 10 Verses 90-92), "And We took the Children of Israel across the sea, and (Fir'aun) Pharaoh and his hosts followed them in oppression and enmity, till when drowning overtook him, he said: ‘I believe that none has the right to be worshipped but He (Allah) in whom the Children of Israel believe, and I am one of the Muslims (those who submit to Allah's Will)‘ (90). ‘Now (you believe); while you refused to believe before and were one of the Mufsidu'n (evildoers and the corrupters) (91). So this day We shall deliver your (dead) body (out from the sea) that you may be a sign to those who come after you! And verily, many among mankind are heedless of the Aya't' (92)." (Study the Noble Qur'an - Word-for-Word).
وَجَـٰوَزۡنَا بِبَنِىٓ إِسۡرَٲٓءِيلَ ٱلۡبَحۡرَ فَأَتۡبَعَهُمۡ فِرۡعَوۡنُ وَجُنُودُهُ ۥ بَغۡيً۬ا وَعَدۡوًاۖ حَتَّىٰٓ إِذَآ أَدۡرَڪَهُ ٱلۡغَرَقُ قَالَ ءَامَنتُ أَنَّهُ ۥ لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا ٱلَّذِىٓ ءَامَنَتۡ بِهِۦ بَنُوٓاْ إِسۡرَٲٓءِيلَ وَأَنَا۟ مِنَ ٱلۡمُسۡلِمِينَ (90) ءَآلۡـَٔـٰنَ وَقَدۡ عَصَيۡتَ قَبۡلُ وَكُنتَ مِنَ ٱلۡمُفۡسِدِينَ (91) فَٱلۡيَوۡمَ نُنَجِّيكَ بِبَدَنِكَ لِتَكُونَ لِمَنۡ خَلۡفَكَ ءَايَةً۬ۚ وَإِنَّ كَثِيرً۬ا مِّنَ ٱلنَّاسِ عَنۡ ءَايَـٰتِنَا لَغَـٰفِلُونَ (92)
The pharaoh's corpse is still in exhibition t0day.among other pharaohs' corpses. Sadly, instead of people taking it as a lesson or warning, they tend to pause beside it with pride and dignity - quite different from what the Qur'an says. (According to Dr.Shauqi Abu Khalil, in his book ‘Atlas of the Qur'an‘, Musa's life coincided with the rule of the Pharaoh Merneptah (Minfita'h), who ruled from the year 1230 B.C.-1215 B.C.
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The Children of Israel
No sooner had the Children of Israel crossed to the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, than they turned against Moses and his brother Aaron, the very people who had saved them from Pharaoh's oppression.
Before we go into account of their defiance to God’s guidance as sent down through Moses, let us see who ‘The Children of Israel’ are. As said earlier, they originate from the twelve sons of Jacob (Ya'qub) who is also called Israel. He was the son of Isaac (Is'haq) and the grand-son of Abraham (Ibrahim). The descendants of each one of Jacob's sons eventually formed one of the twelve tribes of Israel.
It is these twelve tribes which are referred to in the Qur’an when Prophet Musa (Moses) struck his stick on the rock and twelve water springs gushed out, one for each tribe, so that they would not quarrel over water. It says in Su'rat Al-Baqarah (Chapter 2 Verse 60), "And remember when (Musa) Moses asked for water for his people and We said: ‘Strike the stone with your stick,’ then gushed forth therefrom twelve springs. Each (group of) people knew its own place for water. ‘Eat and drink of that which Allah has provided and do not act corruptly, making mischief on the Earth." (60)". (Study the Noble Qur'an — Word- for-Word).
وَإِذِ ٱسۡتَسۡقَىٰ مُوسَىٰ لِقَوۡمِهِۦ فَقُلۡنَا ٱضۡرِب بِّعَصَاكَ ٱلۡحَجَرَۖ فَٱنفَجَرَتۡ مِنۡهُ ٱثۡنَتَا عَشۡرَةَ عَيۡنً۬اۖ قَدۡ عَلِمَ ڪُلُّ أُنَاسٍ۬ مَّشۡرَبَهُمۡۖ ڪُلُواْ وَٱشۡرَبُواْ مِن رِّزۡقِ ٱللَّهِ وَلَا تَعۡثَوۡاْ فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ مُفۡسِدِينَ (60(
Mawdudi, in the footnotes to his translation of this Verse in Towards Understanding the Qur'an, Volume 1 page 77 says,(Quote): ‘this rock is still to be found in the Sinai and attracts tourists. It still bears the slits and cracks of the springs‘ (Unquote).
The Children of Israel were God’s chosen people. The following verses from the Holy Qur'an give the best account of how God favoured them above the rest of mankind and how, later on, they degenerated to such an extent that they finally received God's wrath. In Su'rat Al-Baqarah (Chapter 2 Verse 122), Allah tells them, "O Children of Israel! Remember My favour which I bestowed upon you and that I preferred you to the 'Alamin' [mankind and jinn (of your time period, in the past)] (122)." (Study the Noble Qur'an — Word-for-Word).
يَـٰبَنِىٓ إِسۡرَٲٓءِيلَ ٱذۡكُرُواْ نِعۡمَتِىَ ٱلَّتِىٓ أَنۡعَمۡتُ عَلَيۡكُمۡ وَأَنِّى فَضَّلۡتُكُمۡ عَلَى ٱلۡعَـٰلَمِينَ (122)
God the Almighty tells them again in the same Su'rat, Verse 40: “O Children of Israel! Remember my favour which I bestowed on you, and fulfill (your obligations to) My covenant (with you) so that I fulfill (My Obligations to) your covenant (with Me), and fear none but Me (40)". (Study the Noble Qur'an — Word-for-Word).
يَـٰبَنِىٓ إِسۡرَٲٓءِيلَ ٱذۡكُرُواْ نِعۡمَتِىَ ٱلَّتِىٓ أَنۡعَمۡتُ عَلَيۡكُمۡ وَأَوۡفُواْ بِعَہۡدِىٓ أُوفِ بِعَهۡدِكُمۡ وَإِيَّـٰىَ فَٱرۡهَبُونِ (40(
Su'rat Al-Baqarah continues in Verses 49-52, "And (remember) when We delivered you from Fir'aun’s (Pharaoh's) people who were afflicting you with horrible torment, killing your sons and sparing your women, and therein was a mighty trial from your Lord (49). And remember when We separated the sea for you and saved you and drowned Fir'aun’s (Pharaoh's) people while you were looking (at them when the sea-water covered them) (50). And (remember) when We appointed for Musa (Moses) forty nights, and (in his absence) you took the calf (for worship), and you were Dha'limu'n (polytheists, wrong-doers (51). Then after that We forgave you so that you might be grateful (52)." (Study the Noble Qur'an — Word-for-Word).
وَإِذۡ نَجَّيۡنَـٰڪُم مِّنۡ ءَالِ فِرۡعَوۡنَ يَسُومُونَكُمۡ سُوٓءَ ٱلۡعَذَابِ يُذَبِّحُونَ أَبۡنَآءَكُمۡ وَيَسۡتَحۡيُونَ نِسَآءَكُمۡۚ وَفِى ذَٲلِكُم بَلَآءٌ۬ مِّن رَّبِّكُمۡ عَظِيمٌ۬ (49) وَإِذۡ فَرَقۡنَا بِكُمُ ٱلۡبَحۡرَ فَأَنجَيۡنَـٰڪُمۡ وَأَغۡرَقۡنَآ ءَالَ فِرۡعَوۡنَ وَأَنتُمۡ تَنظُرُونَ (50) وَإِذۡ وَٲعَدۡنَا مُوسَىٰٓ أَرۡبَعِينَ لَيۡلَةً۬ ثُمَّ ٱتَّخَذۡتُمُ ٱلۡعِجۡلَ مِنۢ بَعۡدِهِۦ وَأَنتُمۡ ظَـٰلِمُونَ (51) ثُمَّ عَفَوۡنَا عَنكُم مِّنۢ بَعۡدِ ذَٲلِكَ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تَشۡكُرُونَ (52)
The Su'rat continues to say in Verses 55-58, "And (remember) when you said: 'O Musa (Moses), we shall never believe in you until we see Allah plainly.’ But you were seized with a thunderbolt (lightning) while you were looking (55). Then We raised you up after your death, so that you might be grateful (56). And We shaded you with clouds and sent down on you AI-Manna (special heavenly food) and quail, (saying): ‘Eat of the good lawful things We have provided for you,’ (but they rebelled). And they did not wrong Us but wronged themselves (57). And (remember) when We said: ‘Enter this town (Jerusalem) and eat bountifully therein with pleasure and delight wherever you wish, and enter the gate in prostration (or bowing with humility) and say: ‘forgive us,‘ and We shall forgive you your sins and shall increase (reward) for the good-doers' (58)". (Study the Noble Qur'an - Word-for- Word).
وَإِذۡ قُلۡتُمۡ يَـٰمُوسَىٰ لَن نُّؤۡمِنَ لَكَ حَتَّىٰ نَرَى ٱللَّهَ جَهۡرَةً۬ فَأَخَذَتۡكُمُ ٱلصَّـٰعِقَةُ وَأَنتُمۡ تَنظُرُونَ (55) ثُمَّ بَعَثۡنَـٰكُم مِّنۢ بَعۡدِ مَوۡتِكُمۡ لَعَلَّڪُمۡ تَشۡكُرُونَ (56) وَظَلَّلۡنَا عَلَيۡڪُمُ ٱلۡغَمَامَ وَأَنزَلۡنَا عَلَيۡكُمُ ٱلۡمَنَّ وَٱلسَّلۡوَىٰۖ كُلُواْ مِن طَيِّبَـٰتِ مَا رَزَقۡنَـٰكُمۡۖ وَمَا ظَلَمُونَا وَلَـٰكِن كَانُوٓاْ أَنفُسَهُمۡ يَظۡلِمُونَ (57) وَإِذۡ قُلۡنَا ٱدۡخُلُواْ هَـٰذِهِ ٱلۡقَرۡيَةَ فَڪُلُواْ مِنۡهَا حَيۡثُ شِئۡتُمۡ رَغَدً۬ا وَٱدۡخُلُواْ ٱلۡبَابَ سُجَّدً۬ا وَقُولُواْ حِطَّةٌ۬ نَّغۡفِرۡ لَكُمۡ خَطَـٰيَـٰكُمۡۚ وَسَنَزِيدُ ٱلۡمُحۡسِنِينَ (58)
It continues to say in Verse 61, "And (remember) when you said, ‘O Musa (Moses)! We cannot endure one kind of food. So invoke your Lord for us to bring forth for us what the earth grows, its herbs, its cucumbers, its Fu'm (wheat or garlic), its lentils and its onions‘. He said, ‘Would you exchange that which is better for that which is lower? Go you down to any town and you shall find what you want.’ And they were covered with humiliation and misery, and they drew on themselves the Wrath of Allah. That is because they used to disbelieve the Aya’t (proofs, evidence, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) of Allah and killed the prophets wrongfully. That is because they disobeyed and used to transgress the bounds (in their disobedience to Allah, i.e. commit crimes and sins) (61)." (Study the Noble Qur'an — Word-for-Word).
وَإِذۡ قُلۡتُمۡ يَـٰمُوسَىٰ لَن نَّصۡبِرَ عَلَىٰ طَعَامٍ۬ وَٲحِدٍ۬ فَٱدۡعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ يُخۡرِجۡ لَنَا مِمَّا تُنۢبِتُ ٱلۡأَرۡضُ مِنۢ بَقۡلِهَا وَقِثَّآٮِٕهَا وَفُومِهَا وَعَدَسِہَا وَبَصَلِهَاۖ قَالَ أَتَسۡتَبۡدِلُونَ ٱلَّذِى هُوَ أَدۡنَىٰ بِٱلَّذِى هُوَ خَيۡرٌۚ ٱهۡبِطُواْ مِصۡرً۬ا فَإِنَّ لَڪُم مَّا سَأَلۡتُمۡۗ وَضُرِبَتۡ عَلَيۡهِمُ ٱلذِّلَّةُ وَٱلۡمَسۡڪَنَةُ وَبَآءُو بِغَضَبٍ۬ مِّنَ ٱللَّهِۗ ذَٲلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمۡ كَانُواْ يَكۡفُرُونَ بِـَٔايَـٰتِ ٱللَّهِ وَيَقۡتُلُونَ ٱلنَّبِيِّـۧنَ بِغَيۡرِ ٱلۡحَقِّۗ ذَٲلِكَ بِمَا عَصَواْ وَّڪَانُواْ يَعۡتَدُونَ